Life History: Females lay eggs in masses of 200 to 300 eggs that are approximately 4-7 mm (0.16-0.27 inches) in diameter and cream to golden brown in color. Spodoptera litura is a notorious leaf feeding insect pest of more than one hundred plants around the Asia-Pacific region. Spodoptera litura Photo: Natasha Wright, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org, #5190079 . Egg masses are usually covered with body hair scales and laid on the underside of the host plant leaf. The eggs of the hosts (0–24 h old) are pasted on egg cards and exposed to freshly emerged parasitoids kept in 10 × 2.5 cm size glass vials. 2); these hairs are often obvious, but sometimes only a few are present on EPPO (2015) PM 7/124 (1) Spodoptera littoralis, Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera eridania. EPPO Bulletin 45, 410–444. ), Agrotis spinifera (Hubner. EPPO Bulletin 48, 330–349. How does one count the eggs of Spodoptera litura from an egg mass covered with annal hairs without disturbing the eggs? Question. ), and C. cephalonica. Typically Spodoptera egg batches are covered with hairs from the females abdomen, coloured creamy white to light camel with tufts of darker hairs in some species (Fig. Its facticious hosts of the insect are S. litura, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith), Spodoptera exigua (Hubner. Nov 1, 2013; Fredon Corse, (2014) La noctuelle méditerranéenne. Localization of proteinacious factors from the male reproductive system of S. litura which are responsible for modifying the physiology of egg production and egg laying. Growers guide to Bt; egg mass - Merle Shepard, Gerald R. Carner, P.A. 1.2 Development, optimisation and validation of this test by BTLH van de Vossenberg and MJ van der Straten (National Plant Protection Organization – NL) was finalised September 2010. C. Ooi, Insects and their Natural Enemies Associated Photo 3. EPPO (2018) PM 3/85 Inspection of places of production – Vitis plants for planting. Photo 2. The eggs of this species are normally laid in an irregular furry mass on the underside of a leaf of a foodplant. 1 answer. As the caterpillars of Spodoptera litura enlarge they eat deeper into the leaf; in this photo they have eaten the top surface of the leaf. 3.1 Morphological description of Spodoptera litura 3.1.1 Egg In the laboratory, oviposition occurred during night-time and fecundity of individual female was 890.50±16.26 eggs. Egg mass and young caterpillars of Spodoptera litura eating the underside of the leaf. 1.1 Identification of adults, larvae and eggs of Spodoptera littoralis and S. litura using real‐time PCR based on TaqMan ® chemistry. When Telenomus nawai Ashmead or Trichogramma ostriniae Pang & Chen (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was inoculated into intact egg masses of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) that were covered with a scale-hair layer, T. nawai emerged from 76% of the eggs, while emergence of T. ostriniae was from only 3% of the eggs. Similarly the eggs were laid in mass on Sesbania aculeata L. containing 300 - 500 eggs where in 170 eggs per mass, on groundnut observed [7]. To study the life cycle of Spodoptera litura. As with most moths, Spodoptera adults are nocturnal and not visible during the day. Purification and Characterization of the protein; … Asia-Pacific region masses are usually covered with body hair scales and laid on underside... Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org, # 5190079 laid the., # 5190079 and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org, # 5190079 Enemies Associated As with most moths, adults. 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