Article discusses effect of operation against Cologne. In little over ninety minutes, 1,455 tons of high explosive bombs and 915 tons of incendiaries rained down, killing more than 500 people and injuring another 5,000. Britain had survived the German Blitz against London and other city targets in 1940, and Bomber Command was anxious to show it could carry the war back to Germany in a decisive manner. A squadron of 1,046 RAF bombers was approaching. Captioned in 1956 Memoir between pages 26-27 'Cologne after first 1,000 Bomber raid 1942'. Use of quartz discussed. 1,046 heavy bombers attacked their target with 1,455 tons of explosive. When Churchill and Harris discussed the possible casualty figures, Churchill said that he would be prepared for the loss of 100 aircraft. How Germany reacts to air attacks. targeted Cologne with its first 1,000 bomber raid. In May 1942 there were only four operational squadrons fully equipped with the new four-engine Avro Lancaster heavy bomber. used training planes from O.T.U.'s. On May 31st the RAF launched it first 1,000 plane raid against a German city- Cologne. 3 The 1000 Bomber Raid on Cologne (Köln) - 1942 . on May 31, 1942 when the first 1,000 plane raid was carried out. This force was more than two and a half times greater than any previous single night's effort by Bomber Command up to this point of the war. Raids continued on other German cities like Hamburg and Berlin, but despite General Harrison’s claim in 1943 that he would bring about the collapse of Nazis Germany by May 1944, all of the raids had only a limited effect. Later mass RAF raids used between 400 and 700 four-engined bombers, and on some nights, Bomber Command could send two 400-bomber forces to separate targets. The ‘1000 Bomber’ raid on Cologne had shown that mass bombing was inaccurate and not totally fruitful in terms of strategic gains. Publisher. The number of people killed on the ground in Cologne was remarkably low, less than 500, presumably a testament to the air raid shelters. The total losses exceeded the previous highest of 37 aircraft on the night of 7/8th November 1941 when a large force was sent out in bad weather conditions, but the proportion of the force lost in the Cologne raid – 3.9 per cent of the bombers sent on the raid – though high, was deemed acceptable. Since then it had received dozens of nuisance raids and diversions by small numbers of aircraft. The tracks of a mass of concentrated searchlights and tracer bullets from anti-aircraft fire cover the larger area of the picture as the first bombs explode on the city (lower left). 26 May 2005 I well remember the 30th May 1942 the date of the first 1000 Bomber raid on Cologne. Photographs. [1] The term was a propaganda device, whereby Arthur Harris reached the number of bombers by including not only bombers that were currently operational as part of RAF Bomber Command, but also aircrews from Operational Training Units to accumulate a force of 1,000 bombers as a demonstration of the RAF's power. The Commander-in-Chief of Bomber Command, Air Marshal Arthur ‘Bomber’ Harris, eventually managed to assemble a force that exceeded the ‘magic number’. Description. For example the 20 Feb '44 raid did indeed number 1,003 bombers, but they were divided over three … The first was he dubbed the 1,000 plane raid on Cologne which was actually only a little under 900 planes. British RAF Launched A 1,000 Bomber Raid Against Cologne, Germany, This Day 75-Years Ago; May 30, 1942 — First Ever 1,000 Bomber Attack. raid on cologne, 30-31 may 1942; air offensive over germany; bomber offensive; bombing of germany; Related objects. Our target was Cologne and we got there without incident. Vertical aerial photograph taken during Operation MILLENNIUM, the 'Thousand-bomber' raid on Cologne, Germany 30/31 May 1942. Air Marshal Arthur 'Bomber' Harris may have stepped up the bombing campaign against Germany with his first "1,000 bomber raid" against Cologne in May, 1942, but he couldn't sustain assaults on this scale. The headline-grabbing first ever 1,000-bomber raid on Cologne during the night of May 30/31, 1942, was intended to severely damage Ger­man morale and maybe serve to knock Nazi Ger­many out of the war. The RAF Bomber Command under the leadership of Arthur Harris was seeking a way to demoralize the German population and war effort. You'll be able to post in these if you are a Club member. OPERATIONS AND THE 1,000 BOMBER RAIDS. On the night of 30/31 May 1942 the inner city of Cologne was almost totally destroyed by a 1000-bomber raid. It was gradually replaced in the European theatre by the four-engined Stirlings, Halifaxes and Lancasters, however. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for COLOGNE THE FIRST 1000- BOMBER RAID at Amazon.com. The effects on the ground at Cologne serve to highlight the horror of war on this scale. COLOGNE'S LOSS UP IN BRITISH TALLY; Air Ministry Now Estimates 250 Factories Were Blasted in 1,000-Bomber Raid Pilot's Map for Cologne Raid: Getting Ready for the Cologne Raid: Pilot's Map for the Essen Raid: I was still at the O.T.U. On the night of May 30, 1942, the R.A.F. It was subsequently estimated that between 135,000 and 150,000 of Cologne’s population of nearly 700,000 fled the city after the raid. The headline-grabbing first ever 1,000-bomber raid on Cologne during the night of May 30/31, 1942, was intended to severely damage Ger­man morale and maybe serve to knock Nazi Ger­many out of the war. How To Upset Your Neighbor In The Winter. (3) Group Captain Dudley Saward wrote about the Cologne raid in the book, The Bomber… I well remember the 30th May 1942 the date of the first 1000 Bomber raid on Cologne. That same publicity confirmed Bomber Command's future as a major force. ill., … Explore Bradford Timeline's photos on Flickr. Rights. How To Upset Your Neighbor In The Winter. Founded in the first century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium , today’s Cologne straddles both sides of the Rhine River and is Germany’s forth-largest city. This first 1,000 bomber raid was considered a success; it made its mark on history and it was a turning point for RAF Bomber Command in the war, setting the tone and tactics for future operations. By true 1,000 bomber raids I meant where 1,000 bombers were sent against a 'single' target - as the British did against Cologne, Essen and Bremen. The Thousand bomber raid was launched for several reasons: The success of that first raid was convincing while the two major follow up ‘Thousand’ raids on Essen and Bremen in June were less so, but still emphatically justified Bomber Command’s new … Free delivery for many products! 1st 1000 plane bomber raid, Cologne, 30th /31st May 1942 by Jenni Waugh. As so often before, the air raid alarms sound at midnight in Cologne. The operation was led by experienced crews with ‘Gee’ equipped aircraft from Nos 1 and 3 Groups. During the 1939 to 1945 period the Royal Air Force dropped 34,711 long tons of bombs on the city. The term "thousand-bomber raid" was used to describe three night bombing raids by the Royal Air Force against German cities in summer 1942 during World War II. If you don't, this raid instead of being the costliest in history for the enemy, could be the costliest in history for us. Show more. Exact heights are just as important. We’ll also set you up with an account for our Forum and Gallery. Photographs. 1000-Bomber Raid over Cologne. The raid itself created over 2,000 firs and killed 486 people. by Anura Guruge Members of No. Saundby spent a few days checking on the figures and informed Harris that his 1000 bomber plan was just about feasible. The ‘1000 Bomber’ raid on Cologne had shown that mass bombing was inaccurate and not totally fruitful in terms of strategic gains. Opening hours: 10am – 5pm Monday to Friday, RAF Bomber Command’s first 1,000 bomber raid May 1942, Lancaster PA474 at Duxford for maintenance, Christmas membership gifts - order by 17th December, Win a limited edition Three Sisters commemorative plate. report. The term was a propaganda device, whereby Arthur Harris included some modern four-engined "heavy" bombers but mostly 1930s-era twin-engine "medium" bombers and many otherwise unsuitable small bombers and trainee aircrews in the … Reconnaissance photograph photograph of city centre with major road running top to bottom and railway lines on right side. Meteorite crashes into pensioner's garden in Thailand. The overall effect is curiously The first ever 1,000 bomber raid by the RAF was conducted on Cologne on the night of 30/31 May 1942. Some were from Operational Training Units, such as these from No 16 OTU at RAF Barford St John, a satellite airfield for Upper Heyford. Night fighters and flak shot down 36 of the attacking bombers. by Anura Guruge Members of No. whole: Dimensions: 24cm., Pagination: 64p. In order to get 1,000 planes, the … During the 1939 to 1945 period the Royal Air Force dropped 34,711 long tons of bombs on the city. Famously it had been the first target in the 1000 bomber raids of 1942. It comprised: 602 Vickers Wellingtons, 131 Handley Page Halifaxes, 88 Short Stirlings, 79 Handley Page Hampdens, 73 Avro Lancasters, 46 Avro Manchesters and 28 Armstrong-Whitworth Whitleys. You are browsing in: Archive List > Royal Air Force. COLOGNE THE FIRST 1000- BOMBER RAID Unknown Binding – 1 Jan. 1982 by Charles Messenger (Author) › Visit Amazon's Charles Messenger Page. Article discusses effect of operation against Cologne. Cologne the first 1000-bomber raid. The First 1000 Bomber Rain in History. The first ever 1,000 bomber raid by the RAF was conducted on Cologne on the night of 30/31 May 1942. First 1,000 bomber raid [edit | edit source] File:Cologne 1945 5.jpg. Follow your briefed timings and course. Bomber Command recorded 868 bombers attacking the target with 1,455 tons of bombs. However, the first actual bombing took place on 12 May 1940. In view of the fearful risk of sending out so many untrained and inexperienced crews and the potential for immense losses, this was a huge gamble. Innenstadt, Cologne in 1945. In order to get 1,000 planes, the R.A.F. report. Charles Messenger (Author) 5.0 out of 5 stars 2 ratings. Date. Britain was only able to produce 7,377 Lancasters during the war, at a cost of £45,000 to £50,000 each (around £2 million today.) This content is available under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International license (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0). 30–31 May 1942 : First thousand-bomber raid, 1,047 aircraft dispatched in "Operation Millennium" against Cologne.This saw the first use of the "bomber stream" to overwhelm enemy radar and defences by flying in a narrow dense formation.Bomber Command recorded 868 bombers attacking the target with 1,455 tons of bombs. Publisher. The thousand plane raid [the story of the first massive air raid - 1000 bombers against the city of Cologne Item Preview This was an official oil-on-board painting by British war artist W. Krogman. The city's cathedral is clearly visible. This, it was hoped, would swamp the ‘flak’ defences at the target and deliver such a concentration of blast and incendiary bombs in a short period that the fire services would be overwhelmed. The scale of destruction seems accurate - indeed, perhaps slightly understated; other aspects of the image seem to owe more to propaganda requirements than objective reality. Interestingly, the highest losses were suffered by the first waves of bombers, those with the operational and experienced crews, whilst the training aircraft and those crewed by pupil crews suffered lower casualties, indicating that the German defences had become increasingly overwhelmed as the raid went on. The first 1,000 bomber raid by the RAF was codenamed Operation Millennium, Cologne was chosen as the target and the raid took place on the night of 30/31 May 1942.The Thousand bomber raid was launched for several reasons: The raid proved that the new tactics could be successful; there were few casualties through collisions and subsequently the time over target would be progressively shortened until 700 or 800 aircraft could bomb in less than 20 minutes! The raiders’ squad­rons were a Common­wealth mixture: British, … See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. The 1,000-bomber force would be packed into a tight formation to further reduce casualties to the RAF, inflicting maximum damage in minimum time and thereby pulling off a huge propaganda coup. The RAF lost 41 aircraft, 22 of them over or near Cologne, of which 16 were shot down by ‘flak’, four by night fighters, and two were lost in a mid-air collision. Imagined impression of the Allied 1,000 bomber raid on Cologne, 30/31 May, 1942. A further bomber was brought down by coastal artillery.” It is the night of 30-31 May 1942. British RAF Launched A 1,000 Bomber Raid Against Cologne, Germany, This Day 75-Years Ago; May 30, 1942 — First Ever 1,000 Bomber Attack. The target was Cologne, a city with one million inhabitants. Reno crash of Questair M-20 Venture. However, the first actual bombing took place on 12 May 1940. At this stage of the war RAF Bomber Command had a front line strength of around 400 aircraft, mostly twin-engine bombers, with a predominance of Vickers Wellingtons. 3. First 1,000 bomber raid Official British war art imagining a bombing raid on Cologne. This saw the first use of the "bomber stream" to overwhelm enemy radar and defences by flying in a narrow dense formation. Briefing is over and we are now aware of the target and the reason for the raid, the industrial centre of Cologne is to be annihilated. On the night of May 30th-31st 1942, the RAF carried out the first 1,000-bomber raid in history. Air raid alarms went off in the winter/spring of 1940 as enemy bombers passed overhead. • 30–31 May 1942 : First thousand-bomber raid, 1,047 aircraft dispatched in "Operation Millennium" against Cologne. On the reverse 'Cologne, C2550'. Pilot's Map for Cologne Raid: Getting Ready for the Cologne Raid: Pilot's Map for the Essen Raid: I was still at the O.T.U. These events also placed Sir Arthur Harris firmly in the public eye, where he would remain for the rest of his life. Cologne May 30th 1942 (1000 Bomber Raid ) Operations Board RAF Marham May 30th 1942. 1000-Bomber Raid over Cologne In 1942, the middle of World War II, the British Royal Air Force (RAF) chose a 90-minute window to bomb the German city of Koelln (Cologne). search results for this author. Official counter-measure. 106 Squadron RAF, including their Commanding Officer, Wing Commander Guy Gibson (standing middle, front row), celebrate on their return to Coningsby, Lincolnshire, from the ‘Thousand Bomber’ raid on Cologne, … Explore Bradford Timeline's photos on Flickr. Fitting tribute to war heroes NEXT weekend marks the 70th anniversary of the first 1,000-bomber raid on Cologne, a highly significant operation when … 1942 RAF Launches 1,000 Bomber Raid. During the night of May 31, 1942, Cologne was the site of "Operation Millennium", the first 1,000 bomber raid by the Royal Air Force in World War II. The most notable attack on Cologne was the first Allied 1,000 bomber raid on 30/31 May 1942. Nazi leaders in the bombed Cologne Cathedral Harris first discussed the plan with Air Vice-Marshall Saundby in May 1942. However, the first actual bombing took place on 12 May 1940. Section on anxious memories mentions that effect casualties on eastern front and air attacks revives first world war saying "Wir siegen uns tot", "We are killing ourselves by our victories". Raids. description Object description. The major innovation was the introduction of a bomber stream in which all aircraft would fly by a common route and at the same speed to and from the target, each aircraft being allotted a height band and a time slot in the stream to minimize the risk of collision. 3 The 1000 Bomber Raid on Cologne (Köln) - 1942 . Other news, sports and advertisements of the day with much on WWII. ... Cover image: The Bombing Raid on Cologne from National Archives UK. Vertical aerial photograph taken during Operation MILLENNIUM, the 'Thousand-bomber' raid on Cologne, Germany 30/31 May 1942. Short Stirling Two and a half thousand separate fires were started, 1,700 of which were classed by the German fire brigade as "large". On the reverse 'Cologne, C2550'. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Object details Category Books Related period Second World War (content), Second World War (content) Creator MESSENGER, CHARLES (Author) CRUCIAL BATTLES OF WORLD WAR 2 (Author) Ian Allan (Publisher) Production date 1982 Place made London Dimensions. The first 1,000 bomber raid by the RAF was codenamed Operation Millennium, Cologne was chosen as the target and the raid took place on the night of 30/31 May 1942.The Thousand bomber raid was launched for several reasons: It was expected that the devastation from such raids might be enough to knock Germany out of the war or at least severely damage German morale. Over the target, where earlier in the war four hours had been allowed for raids by only 100 aircraft, a mere 90 minutes was planned for 1,000 aircraft to bomb. Loading... more; Motorist narrowly escapes death after truck flips onto car in southern China. Register to receive our latest news and competitions by email. Air raid alarms went off in the winter/spring of 1940 as enemy bombers passed overhead. Almost 35,000 tons of bombs had been dropped on the city, killing more than 20,000 of Cologne’s residents. The Times. The above photograph is perhaps one of the most important in the squadron history. O n the evening of 30 May 1942, over 1,000 bombers took off for Cologne as part of a dramatic new strategy by Arthur Harris, the recently appointed head of Bomber Command. Bradford Timeline has uploaded 39374 photos to Flickr. However, over 5,000 people were injured and over 45,000 were “bombed out” of their homes. Meteorite crashes into pensioner's garden in Thailand. Captioned in 1956 Memoir between pages 26-27 'Cologne after first 1,000 Bomber raid 1942'. Air raid alarms went off in the winter/spring of 1940 as enemy bombers passed overhead. The most notable attack on Cologne was the first Allied 1,000 bomber raid on 30/31 May 1942. Amazon Price New from Used from Paperback "Please retry" £1.18 — £1.18: Paperback £1.18 9 Used … The 30/31 May 1942 attack on Cologne was the first 1,000 bomber raid. Cologne endured exactly 262 air raids by the Western Allies, which caused approximately 20,000 civilian casualties and completely wiped out the centre of the city. Over three thousand buildings were destroyed and another nine thousand damaged. Not only does the photo depict the first 1000 bomber raid ever undertaken it records the flight of the AOC of No.3 Group Air Vice Marshall John (Jack) Baldwin DSO with the squadrons commanding officer Wing Commander Paul … In May, 1942, the British RAF's Bomber Command conducted its first 1,000 plane mission, against the city of Cologne in Germany. 1000 bomber raids. Bibl.:p.62-64. 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